1836 – Mexico’s independence was recognized by Spain.
1869 – William E. Semple, of Mt. Vernon, Ohio, patented an acceptable chewing gum.
1895 – In Paris, the first commercial public screening of cinematographic films took place.
1902 – The first professional indoor football game was played at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Syracuse defeated the Philadelphia Nationals 6-0.
1912 – The first municipally-owned street cars were used on the streets of San Francisco, California.
1937 – The Irish Free State became the Republic of Ireland when a new constitution established the country as a sovereign state under the name of Eire.
1942 – R.O. Sullivan crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the 100th time.
1945 – The U.S. Congress officially recognized the “Pledge of Allegiance”.
1973 – The Chamber of Commerce of Akron, Ohio, terminated its association with the All-American Soap Box Derby. It was stated that the race had become “a victim of cheating and fraud”.
1973 – Alexander Solzhenitsyn published “Gulag Archipelago,” an expose of the Soviet prison system.
1981 – Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American test-tube baby, was born in Norfolk, Virginia.
1983 – Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys drowned while swimming near his boat in the harbor at Marina del Ray, California. (Image: nydailynewscom… left to right: Dennis Wilson, Brian Wilson, Mike Love, Al Jardine, Carl Wilson)